Amateka ya Perezida Habyarimana wagiye ku butegetsi ahemukiye inshuti ye magara

Chief Editor | 5-05-2016
Amateka ya Perezida Habyarimana wagiye ku butegetsi ahemukiye inshuti ye magara

Juvénal Habyarimana ni mwene Jean-Baptiste Ntibazirikana na Suzanne Nyirazuba. Yavutse tariki ya 8 Werurwe 1937 mu Gasiza mu Bushiru (Gisenyi). Yavukanaga n’abana 8, abahungu 4 n’abakobwa 4. Babiri muri bashiki be babaye abihaye Imana bo mu muryango w’Abenebikira. Sekuru Rugwiro yari umukozi ushinzwe gutekera abapadiri bera bari barashinze Paruwasi ya Rambura mu 1914. Se wa Habyarimana Juvénal witwaga Jean Baptiste Ntibazirikana, yari umu kateshisite (catéchiste).

Afite imyaka 8 y’amavuko, Juvénal Habyarimana yatangiye amashuri abanza i Rambura aho yize imyaka itanu y’amashuri abanza, hanyuma ajya kurangiza umwaka wa 6 w’amashuri abanza kuri Paruwasi Gatorika ya Nyundo. Yatangiriye amashuri yisumbuye mu Iseminari nto ya Kabgayi, ariko kubera ko yashakaga kuba umuganga yavuye i Kabgayi ajya kwiga i Bukavu muri Kongo, muri Collège Interracial de Bukavu. Arangije yagiye kwiga mu Ishami ry’Ubuvuzi rya Kaminuza ya Louvanium i Kinshasa.

Ku itariki ya 17 Kamena 1960, Ingabo z’igihugu cya Kongo zarivumbagatanije, icyo gihe Juvénal Habyarimana yari amaze imyaka 2 mu Ishami ry’Ubuvuzi muri Kaminuza. Nk’abandi banyeshuri b’abanyamahanga byabaye ngombwa ko ahagarika amasomo agataha mu Rwanda.

Juvénal Habyarimana yageze mu Rwanda igihe Dominique Mbonyumutwa, waje kuba Perezida wa Repubulika w’agateganyo mu Rwanda, yari Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe Ingabo, icyo gihe akaba yarashakaga abasore bo kujya mu ishuri ry’aba ofisiye (Officiers) ry’i Kigali.

Juvénal Habyarimana yinjiye muri iryo shuri tariki ya 10 Ugushyingo 1960 ari kumwe n’abandi basore b’abanyarwanda 6, ari bo: Pierre Nyatanyi (Se wa Nyakwigendera Minisitiri Nyatanyi Christine), Aloys Nsekalije, Sabin Benda, Epimaque Ruhashya, Alexis Kanyarengwe, na Bonaventure Ubalijoro.

Juvénal Habyarimana niwe wasohotse muri iryo shuri ari uwa mbere afite inimero ya gisirikare imuranga (matricule 001). Amaze kubona impamyabumenyi yo kumanukira mu mutaka (brevet parachutiste), Juvénal Habyarimana yabonye ipeti rya Sous-Lieutenant ku itariki ya 23 Ukuboza 1961, ubwo aba abaye umusirikare wa mbere w’umunyarwanda wo mu rwego rwa ofisiye.

Yabaye Lieutenant tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962, aba ariwe unahabwa icyubahiro cyo gufata ibendera rya mbere rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ku munsi mukuru w’ubwigenge wabaye tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962. Icyo gihe yari afite imyaka 25 gusa!
Akuriwe na Major François Vanderstraeten w’Umubiligi wari umugaba w’Ingabo, kuva tariki ya 31 Kanama 1962 kugera muri Werurwe 1963, Juvénal Habyarimana yoherejwe gukorera i Cyangugu ashinzwe ako karere ka gisirikare. Aho harebana na Bukavu muri Kongo ahari hatangiye ibikorwa byo kurwanya Leta y’i Kinshasa hakoreshejwe intwaro.

Ni muri icyo gihe bivugwa ko Habyarimana yaba yarahuye bwa mbere na Joseph Désiré Mobutu wari Colonel akaba n’umugaba mukuru w’ingabo za Kongo (armée nationale congolaise). Tariki ya 23 Kamena 1963, Juvénal Habyarimana wari ufite ipeti rya Captaine, amaze kugirwa umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda zitwaga Garde nationale icyo gihe, yatanze amategeko ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda zitera inkunga ingabo za Kongo (armée nationale congolaise). Habyarimana yagizwe umugaba mukuru w’ingabo afite imyaka 26 gusa kandi ari bwo agihabwa ipeti rya Capitaine!

Capitaine Juvénal Habyarimana na Colonel Joseph Désiré Mobutu, bashyize hamwe bashoboye gutsinda inyeshyamba zari ziyobowe n’uwitwa Pierre Mulele (Rebelles Mulélistes), muri Kamena 1964, mu rugamba rukomeye rwabereye ahitwa Kamanyola. Abari bamukuriye icyo gihe bari Ministre w’Ingabo Calliope Mulindahabi na Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda.

Tariki ya 17 Kanama 1963, Capitaine Juvénal Habyarimana yashakanye na Agathe KANZIGA, wari urangije mu Ishuri ry’Imbonezamubano ryo ku Karubanda i Butare (Ecole sociale de Karubanda). Mu 1964, Habyarimana yinjiye muri Guverinoma ya Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda mu 1965 asimbuye Calliope Mulindahabi ku mwanya wa Ministre w’Ingabo (Ministère de la Garde Nationale). Icyo gihe yari Major.

Tariki ya 5 Nyakanga 1973, Habyarimana wari Minisitiri w’ingabo, yahiritse ku butegetsi uwari inshuti ye magara, Kayibanda Grégoire. Icyo gihe Perezida Kayibanda yari inshuti cyane na Habyarimana ndetse yari yaranamubyariye abana muri batisimu, kuburyo Kayibanda atari yiteze ko uwakamuhemukiye ari Habyarimana Juvenal yari yaragize Minisitiri w’Ingabo. Bivugwa ko yamuhiritse ku butegetsi akanamwicisha inzara amufungiranye iwe mu cyahoze ari Gitarama, inzara ikamunogonora kugeza ashizemo umwuka.

Mu 1975, Habyarimana yasheshe ishyaka rya MDR PARMEHUTU arisimbuza MRND (Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développement), iri riba ishyaka rukumbi ryayoboraga igihugu kuva mu 1973 kugeza mu 1991, ubwo hadukaga inkubiri y’amashyaka menshi.

U Rwanda rwayobowe gisirikare imyaka itanu yose, kuva mu 1973 kugeza mu 1978, ubwo hemezwaga Itegeko Nshinga rishya. Muri uwo mwaka, Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal yaritoje mu matora kandi yiyamamaza ari umukandida rukumbi, kuko amategeko agenga MRND n’Itegeko Nshinga yari yashyizeho yavugaga ko Perezida wa MRND ari na we ugomba kuba Perezida wa Repubulika.

Byakomeje bityo gutyo kuko Habyarimana mu 1983 yabaye umukandida rukumbi ku mwanya wa Perezida wa Repubulika, ndetse byongera no kuba mu 1989, kuko icyo gihe manda ya Perezida yari imyaka itanu.

Abantu benshi batandukanye bemeza ko ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana Juvénal bwaranzwe n’ ivangura ry’amoko n’uturere ndetse n’ivangura mu kazi kuva mu 1973 kugeza mu 1990, ubwo ubwicanyi bwakajije umurego.

Umugore wa Habyarimana, Agatha Kanziga, yigize umujyanama w’umugabo we, yivanga mu kazi k’imiyoborere y’igihugu, Habyarimana arabyemera. Icyo gihe ni bwo abantu batangiye kwicwa, abari biswe ibyitso by’Inkotanyi barafatwa barafungwa abandi baricwa.

Ikindi kandi cyaranze umwaka wa 1990, ni uko abanyarwanda b’impunzi bari barahungiye ishyanga, nyuma yo gutakamba basaba gutaha mu mahoro, bakabwirwa kenshi ko ikirahure cyuzuye amazi, kandi ko haramutse hongewemo andi mazi arimo yameneka. Ibi byatumye abari impunzi bahitamo gutaha ku ngufu, kuva ubwo harota intambara kuva mu 1990. Aha habaye isibaniro mu Rwanda, ingabo za Mobutu zirahurura, iz’Abafaransa na zo ziyongeraho, inzirakarengane mu gihugu zipfa ubutitsa.

Kuva mu 1990 kugeza mu 1993, u Rwanda rwarimo intambara, abapfa barapfa, abafungwa barafungwa, amagerenade hirya no hino mu gihugu atangira guterwa ku bwinshi. Ubwicanyi mu gihugu bwahitanye abatari bacye za Bugesera, Bicumbi, Murambi, Kanzenze; imyigaragambyo iba myinshi mu mujyi wa Kigali, igihugu cyose kiba akajagari, agahenge kaje mu 1993 ubwo Perezida Habyarimana yemeraga imishyikirano ya Arusha.

Ihanurwa ry’indege n’iyicwa rya Habyarimana

Tariki ya 6 Mata 1994, indege yo mu bwoko bwa Falcon 50 yari itwaye Habyarimana na Perezida w’u Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira, yararashwe igwa hafi y’ urugo rwe i Kanombe. Guhera ubwo, urupfu rwa Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal rwakurikiwe n’ubwicanyi ndengakamere, aho inzirakarengane zirenga miliyoni zishwe, Umuryango w’Abibumbye ukemeza ko mu Rwanda habaye Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi; ndetse n’umukuru wa Guverinoma yayikoze, Jean Kambanda wamaze guhabwa igifungo cya burundu, nawe abyemerera urukiko mpanabyaha rwa Arusha.

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